Click Title or Replay links for detailed information.
One han closed only
Menzenchin tsumohou 「門前清自摸和」 Closed only This yaku may apply to any closed hand. Any player who draws a winning tile with a closed hand is awarded this yaku.
Riichi 「立直」 Closed only This is a special yaku applied to closed tenpai hands, which requires the player to make a declaration and "wager".
Ippatsu 「一発」 Closed only This is applied when the player calling riichi wins within 4 tile draws/discards. In addition, the cycle must not be interrupted by tile calls.
Pinfu 「平和」 Closed only Typically known as "all sequences", this is a hand that does not gain fu based on composition, other than that of a closed ron.
Iipeikou 「一盃口」 Closed only This hand includes two identical sequences.
Rinshan kaihou 「嶺上開花」 May be open This yaku is awarded upon winning with a tile from the dead wall.
Chankan 「搶槓」 May be open The winning tile for a hand is called on another player's Kan. Essentially, the tile needed to complete a Kan is stolen to complete a winning hand.
Tanyao 「断幺九」 May be open (Closed only on variation) A hand composed of only inside (numbers 2-8) tiles
Yakuhai 「役牌」 May be open A hand with at least one group of dragon tiles, seat wind, or round wind tiles. This hand can be valued at 1 han for each group.
Double riichi 「両立直」 Closed only Riichi is declared with a dealt hand before the first discard.
Sanshoku doujun 「三色同順」 May be open (Loses 1 han) Three sequences have the same number across the three different suits.
Ittsu 「一気通貫」 May be open (Loses 1 han) This hand has a complete sequence of 1 through 9 of a single suit. As a note, the sequence of 1-9 are actually three groups of sequences numbered 123, 456, and 789.
Toitoi 「対々」 May be open The entire hand is composed of triplets.
Sanankou 「三暗刻」 May be open The hand includes three groups of triplets (or closed quads) that have been formed without calling any tiles. The fourth group can be an open triplet or sequence.
Chiitoitsu 「七対子」 Closed only This hand is composed of seven pairs. It is one of two exceptions to the standard 4 tile groups and a pair pattern.
Honroutou 「混老頭」 May be open (Consider as 4 han †) The hand is composed of nothing but all terminals and honors. † This hand may be considered as 4 han, because it is impossible to score this hand without either chii toitsu or toi toi.
Shousangen 「小三元」 May be open (Consider as 4 han †) The hand contains two sets of 3 dragon tiles and a pair of the third dragon tiles. † This hand may be considered as 4 han, because it is impossible to score this hand without two sets of yakuhai, from the two sets of dragons.
Honitsu 「混一色」 May be open (Loses 1 han) This is a single suit hand mixed with some honor tiles.
Junchan taiyao 「純全帯么」 May be open (Loses 1 han) All sets contain at least one terminal.
Ryanpeikou 「二盃口」 Closed only This hand has two sets of " iipeikou". This hand does not combine with chii toitsu, even though the hand can be interpreted as one.
Chinitsu 「清一色」 May be open (Loses 1 han) This hand is composed entirely of tiles from only one of the three suits. It is the only yaku set at 6 han, where the number drops to 5 han when opened.
Kazoe yakuman 「数え役満」 May be open This is a special class of yakuman, where a hand is composed of 13+ han based on the combination of above regular yaku and/or dora.
Kokushi musou 「国士無双 or 国士無双１３面待ち」 Closed only This hand has one of each of the 13 different terminal and honor tiles plus one extra terminal or honour tile. Some rules may allow double yakuman for a 13-wait set.
Suuankou 「四暗刻 or 四暗刻単騎」 Closed only This hand is composed of four groups of closed triplets. When this hand has a shanpon pattern and the win is via ron, then it would not be counted as such; only as the lesser toitoi with sanankou.
Daisangen 「大三元」 May be open This hand possesses three groups (triplets or quads) of all the dragons.
Shousuushii 「小四喜」 May be open This hand has three groups (triplets or quads) of the wind tiles plus a pair of the fourth kind.
Daisuushii 「大四喜」 May be open This hand has four groups (triplets or quads) of all four wind tiles.
Tsuuiisou 「字一色」 May be open Every group of tiles are composed of honor tiles.
Chinroutou 「清老頭」 May be open Every group of tiles are composed of terminal tiles.
Ryuuiisou 「緑一色」 May be open A hand composed entirely of green tiles: 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 Sou and/or Hatsu.
Chuuren poutou 「九連宝燈 or 純正九蓮宝燈」 Closed only A hand consisting of the tiles 1112345678999 in the same suit plus any one extra tile of the same suit.
Tenhou 「天和」 Closed only The dealer hand is a winning hand even before discarding a tile.
Chiihou 「地和」 Closed only The non-dealer hand is a winning hand with the first tile draw.
This yaku does not specifically deal with a player's hand, but rather the player's discards. In addition, the hand may or may not be at tenpai upon scoring. By default, this hand is set to mangan.
Nagashi mangan 「流し満貫」 Closed only All the discards are terminals and/or honors. In addition, none of these discards were called by other players.
Replays http://arcturus.su/ is the most authoritative and comprehensive site I have found. The above list of yaku and the following two links are examples of its excellent content:
Link to fu
Link to riichi
Daina Chiba's strategy guide is an excellent resource. Here a link to the PDF version: Riichi Book 1
This video can help beginners get started:
Playlist of elementary ideas and a little more
This three-hour video strives to be comprehensive:
How to Play Japanese Mahjong
Computer programmers will appreciate this site: Mahjong Repository
This might interest beginners: Link to mr_mortified's published videos.